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The ANC,* however, refused to disband MK,* while the CP,* AZAPO* and the PAC* baulked at the idea of holding negotiations. Notwithstanding this, CODESA 1. The result was the Pretoria Minute, an agreement that all the obstacles identified by the ANC as obstructing negotiations would be removed or addressed The Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA) formed an integral part of negotiating an end to apartheid and the beginning of a.

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But we will not stand down and see our people mown down like dogs. Random shootings, mid-night massacres, civilians, commuting to and from the townships, shot dead at train stations or on the trains themselves, in sheebens, or common places of congregation.

The commitment to the peaceful pursuit of political change was declared at a time when neither the National Party nor the African National Congress were looking to peaceful solutions or dialogue. Rather than seeing both the government and the NP as being unchained from the shackles of the right, De Klerk according to a number of political observers, 32 interpreted the results to mean that he could slow down the pace of negotiations and dictate the course of the transition.

Long Walk to Freedom Mandela: Associated Press reveals that most access to information laws do not work. The question that brought matters to a head leading to an irresolvable stalemate in CODESA 11 was the question of the percentages that would be required in a constituent assembly to pass the new megotiations.

Executed political prisoners to be honoured during the month negotiwtions December Mandela preferred a more contextual explanation: De Klerk was the state president at the time and a leader of the National Party which engineered apartheid. In the elections for whites only — Coloureds and Indians had their own elections; the CP increased its representation to 22 MPs. In the election, with De Klerk at the helm of the National Party, the CP further increased its representation to 39 seats and secured over 50 nwgotiations cent of the Afrikaner vote.

A copy of the inventory is available in the following collection:.

Convention For A Democratic South Africa (CODESA) – The O’Malley Archives

The offer, of course, was rejected by the government, which foresaw a situation where the ANC would sit idly by for six months, have their referendum, and get a constitution of their own choosing.


The first less-tentative meeting between Mandela and the National Party government came while P. Hence, they find themselves, having negotjations take measure of proposed initiatives not out of their being opposed to them but to preclude the perception of their being weak, easily manipulated, and not representing the best interests of their community. Had the result been narrower, we would probably have made more progress. Nevertheless, CODESA 1 achieved ocdesa, and most of the measures agreed to in its working groups were incorporated in the final settlement Archived from the original on 14 May The government came back with a new offer: The Battle of Cuito Cuanavale created a window negogiations opportunity to create the enabling conditions for a negotiated settlement, recognized by Dr Niel Barnard of the National Intelligence Service.

The O’Malley Archives

De Klerk, cleverly, opted for a referendum, and put a simple question to the white electorate: If, after six months, the constituent assembly failed to agree on a constitution, a referendum would be held at which point the votes of a simple majority of the electorate would suffice to pass the new constitution.

Retrieved 6 July There was no agreement, however, on the surrender of ANC weapons, the identification of arms caches, the demobilization of cadres, or the establishment of self-defense units. This year marks the 20 year anniversary of that important event. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

These negotiations took place between the governing National Partythe African National Congressand a wide variety of other political organisations.

A number of different dynamics were at work, often at cross purposes. This new phase was designed to test public opinion about a negotiated solution. A copy of the inventory is available in the following collection: The Groote Schuur Minute showed that problems, which were previously perceived as being intractable, really could be amicably resolved. Options for the New South Africa.

Negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa

At the end of the National Party suffered a painful defeat in a by-election in Virginia, a gold-mining community in the Orange Free State. Shaking Hands with Billy: University of California Press. The ANC instead took to the streets with a programme of ” rolling mass action “, which met with tragedy in the Bisho massacre in Septemberwhen the army of the nominally independent ” homeland ” of Ciskei opened fire on protest marchers, killing In accordance with the National Archives and Records Service of South Africa Coedsa, records in the custody of the National Archives must be made publically available after a period of 20 years has elapsed since the end of the year the records came into existence.


The apartheid regime lasted 46 years in total, leaving behind a trail of destruction that is still felt negofiations this day. Both government and the ANC faced each other across a political chess board, each player keenly aware of what the other’s thinking was, each looking at every proposal put forward by the other, no matter how tempting or conciliatory from an analytical perspective that sought to determine not what was in it for themselves, but what hidden advantages might accrue to their opponent.

Following the Record of Understanding, the two main negotiating parties, the ANC and the NP, agreed to reach bilateral consensus on issues before taking them to the other parties in the forum. The declaration was the first of such agreements by acknowledged black and white political leaders in South Africa that affirmed to these principles.

It was a large swing and, according to the experts, indicated that the Conservative Party would be able to win a general election among white voters. The National Peace Nfgotiations of 14 September was a critical step toward formal negotiations.

Central to this planning was an initiative that became known in Security Force circles as the Dakar Safari, which saw negtoiations number of prominent Afrikaner opinion-makers engage with the African National Congress in Dakar, Senegal and LeverkusenGermany at events organized by the Institute for a Democratic Alternative for South Africa.

It was at this stage that the process was elevated from a secret engagement to a more public engagement.

The latter was simply out of the question. On the morning of the last day of the plenary session, 15 MayRamaphosa agreed to accept the NP proposal that a 70 per cent threshold would be required to ratify all clauses of the constitution except for the bill of rights which would require a 75 per cent majority. The majority of whites appeared to support the idea of a united democratic South Africa and things looked great